Sustainable Development of Festival Event

4662 words (19 pages) Essay

23rd Sep 2019 Environmental Studies Reference this

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Table of contents

INTRODUCTION

What is sustainability?

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

RATIONALE

LITERATURE.

Sustainable development

Background that gave rise to the concept of sustainable development

REFERENCES

 

 

Aim,title: To critically analyse effective the sustainability of Festival event in Europe: a comparative of sustainability of green festival between Spain and UK.

 

INTRODUCTION

21st century society is a society concerned about the environment, climate change. In short, the sustainability of the environment. In which the importance of incorporating into our habits, both business and individual more ecological lines.
This work wants to delve into sustainable events within the European framework, making special reference to green festivals both in the UK and in Spain. From a critical perspective we will approach this last epigraph, making a comparison between both countries.
But when we speak of sustainability we are referring to, it is important to identify and define this concept since it is of vital importance to recognize the meaning of this word and its implications in order not to reach erroneous conclusions.

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The availability of various information sources increases the spread of sustainability terms and their definitions, as employed by different authors and organizations. As a consequence, numerous new terms are emerging, or the existing ones are being extended in the sustainability field, but not enough critical attention has been given to the definitions and their semantic meanings. The multitude of definitions causes much confusion about their usage, since the meaning of some terms is either sloppy or similar, or is only slightly different from one another.

What is sustainability?

The ambiguity of the concept allows it to be accepted by very different ideologies,
what remains operational. In fact, the sustainable has almost become a
Tailor where almost everything can be accommodated. This circumstance explains, for example, the critical anti-advertising campaign created by the organization Ecologistas en

Action, which plays with the term until it becomes the sostemible development formula.4
The rest of the counter-ad shows a girl looking at a small defenseless animal. In
A banner can be read: “Man is extraordinary. With a few transfers
we are capable of destroying important river ecosystems. But planting a tree
we compensate everything. Let’s change the world without changing the planet. ” In a lower banner it reads: SUSTAINABLE SOS Development
That the sustainability rhetoric (everything valuable has to fall under this label) monopolizes so much
attention by marketing of all kinds, does not mean that any use of the term can
to be supported mainly from an intellectual point of view. It is evident that a term that has been endorsed from its origin with the best blessings of the “experts” in
environment, of politicians and civil society, constitutes an extraordinary demand for
sale for any product, something like a label of environmental quality and even moral.

Perhaps, nevertheless, Michael Jacobs is right when he states that the search for a unitary and precise meaning of sustainability is erroneous.6 Like other political concepts,
such as justice or democracy, the really decisive debate is in the clarification of the
operational objectives of the same, that is, the way to put it into practice. If we confuse
the semantic clarification of the concept with the justification of the form or ways of understanding it in practice, we misinterpret, in its judgment, the true nature and function of the
political concepts, which would be disputed or debatable (contestable).
The disputed concepts would be complex and normative, with two levels of meaning. The first level is unitary, but vague.
According to Jacobs, the disputed concepts are
defined in the first level through a series of central ideas that are general, substantive and non-redundant. The most important thing, however, is that we use these terms
because there are no others that express the same type of main or essential ideas. And that
even for those who use different interpretations, an agreement could be reached on
the evaluation of situations in which justice, sustainability or democracy are absent, to cite three examples of disputed concepts.
But here the analysis of the meaning of sustainability does not end. According to Jacobs, the trait
The distinctive of disputed concepts appears on the second level of meaning. This is already the sphere of politics and here lies the dispute -politics- about practical interpretation
thereof.
The concept of sustainability or sustainable development got from the years
Eighty the applause of very different political, moral and vital conceptions. Versus
Previous times in which the idea of ​​sustainability was also debated ardently, that is, on the first level of meaning, it was possible to consolidate a
important consensus regarding the need to overcome an unviable model of development.
Later, sustainable development became one of the fundamental political objectives in the field of the environment; yes, once the environmental dimension
it began to constitute a fundamental dimension of the political agenda. The environmental becomes political.
However, it has not achieved consensus, nor does it seem that it will do so in the future, the meaning
second-level operational level of sustainability. The risk of such a dispersion of interpretations is the sustainability: that everything pretends to be passed by sustainable.

However, it has not achieved consensus, nor does it seem that it will do so in the future, the meaning
second-level operational level of sustainability. The risk of such a dispersion of interpretations is the sustainability: that everything pretends to be passed by sustainable. The advantage is, without
However, allowing social debate of the problem, requires citizen participation in
all sectors, and helps to conceive the issue as something more than a debate among experts, once understood the concept of sustainability as a practical, political concept.

Currently, the terms sustainability and sustainable development are interchangeable. The first one is the Report
Brundlandt. According to this, sustainable development is one that “meets the needs of the
present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs “.8
The second definition is that of the United Nations Environmental Program and the Report
Caring for the Earth, of the World Union for the Conservation of Nature. It reads like this: “development that improves the quality of life of the people within the framework of the carrying capacity
of the ecosystems that support life “.9
The concept of sustainability is also a relative and instrumental concept.
10 First, it depends on the environmental matrix to which it applies. The contemporary biosphere
It is not sustainable. Globally it does not export waste and not import solar energy, it would leave
to work immediately. In addition, sustainability is not a value in itself. It is in
how much guarantees the continuity of life on Earth. It is not a magic formula either.
There are no definitive solutions.
Finally, sustainability is easier to characterize negatively, insofar as
absence of sustainability, which as desideratum or something that must be achieved. A
Once here, it would be possible to highlight some of the basic ideas that accompany it or that have
finished impregnating the nuclear meaning of the concept: 11
The idea that something must be sustained. The concept of sustainable development implies,
of entry, the conciliation between the nature and the economic activity of man. Well
once we are aware that only at the cost of the annihilation of life could the
economy continue to grow at the current rate, the only possible development is a development that
slow growth This very general idea has admitted various particular interpretations, ranging from the commitment to a mere deceleration of growth (Union
European Union) to the defense of degrowth (Riechmann, García, Espinosa) .

 

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

Aim,title:To critically analyse effective the sustainability of Festival event in Europe: a comparative of sustainability of green festival between Spain and UK.

  1. To critically analyse the three pillars of sustainability -social sustainability,environmental sustainability,economic sustainability.
  2. To critically assess the advances in ecological terms.
  3. To critically compare a sustainability of green festival between Spain and UK.
  4. To analytically

This project are focus in four objective ,it have been relevant for development the aim.

 

 

RATIONALE

For the development of this work I have chosen as the theme the organization of events
because my expectation for the future lies within the companies that carry out this type of activity, but specializing in a more ecological vision of the event, thus reaching all possible potential.
, I would like to dedicate myself to the organization of events. I think it’s a vocational profession and very different from
Others.To personal interest, the choice of this topic for the final work is justified by the growing
importance in recent years of the organization of events in all areas and their
presence in the communication strategies of the relationship departments
public. Communication has to be reinvented and increasingly seek new paths
to attract the attention of their audiences. In this context, events are an element
key. According to the Study of the year 2018 of the Eventoplus group there is a clear growth of the market of events that is reflected in the number of events that are organized. However, the budgets of each of them do not increase, that is, there are more events, but not
More budget for each event.
But what is a “sustainable event”? Why specialize in a more sustainable vision of the event?
First, the sustainable event is one that takes into account the negative impacts on the environment in which it develops, and tries to minimize them to the maximum to produce the least possible environmental impact on their environment.
Secondly, contrary to what one thinks, it is not more expensive to organize an event in a sustainable way. And another advantage is that it allows the company to project an institutional image consistent with its principles of Corporate Social Responsibility

 

LITERATURE.

●      Sustainable development

 The origin of the concept of sustainable development is associated with the growing concern the link between economic and social development and its more or less immediate effects on the natural environment. A close relationship between economic development and the environment was expressed within the framework of the United Nations with the creation by this body in the year 1983 of the Development Committee. To direct this Commission, it was designated

 • To analyze the issues related to the development and the environment and formulate proposals in this regard.

• Propose new forms of cooperation development and environmental issues.

 • Promote levels of understanding and commitment to these objectives by April of 1987, the Commission published and released its report, entitled “Our common future” (“Our common future “, in English language) also known as” Brundtland Report “(Brundtland, GH, which introduces the concept of development in the aforementioned statement, could not pretend with the concept of sustainable development, it is necessary to highlight some of the conclusions collected in the “Brundtland Report”, which are mentioned below, inevitably to the gradual depletion of the planet’s natural resources, environmental degradation and the increase of economic and social development with the category of sustainable development.

From the social point of view, the report considered important to analyze population growth in its link with the availability of natural resources and energy resources, water, technical infrastructure, housing and physical space.

In the case of the natural or ecological component, the report warned about the loss of biodiversity and the risk of extinction of numerous species, as well as the intense degradation or fragmentation of .

 Natural resources marked some limitations to economic growth, particularly the depletion of non-renewable resources and the ability of the biosphere to absorb them

their most efficient use, from using them to a lesser extent.

Several guidelines were recommended in the “Brundtland Report” to achieve a compromise between economic development and the environment within which can be highlighted (Gómez Gutiérrez C. and J. A. Díaz Duque, 2013):

• Governments should play a more dynamic role as disseminators of information on natural resources and environmental quality, and promote an annual accounting of these resources as an asset at the social level.

 • The regulatory role should be strengthened in order to reduce costs and efficiently use natural resources.

On all these aspects, it is undeniable that there has subsequently been a significant change at the international level. «Earth Summit», held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, adopted as a political objective the concept of sustainable development and gave way to a set of international agreements called to address several of the environmental problems included in the «Brundtland Report » Many countries, including Cuba, included this objective in their constitution or other legal bodies, and have created ministries, agencies or institutes that promote this purpose.

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These environmental concerns have also reached the business world. Many large corporations and companies try to change their image by adopting policies that respect the environment and have opened a commercial space to the so-called clean products, ecological productions or agricultural productions kilometer zero, initiatives that highlight the non-generation of waste, the food produced without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides, or without the need to travel long distances with fuel consumption. In this context, the use of the term sustainable development has become popular and is nowadays frequently used, although sometimes with distorted interpretations. An analysis of the reasons why little progress has been made in this direction since the initial formulation of the concept is included.

Among the incorrect interpretations are those who consider that sustainable means that economic growth can be maintained unlimitedly over time. Some reinforce the fact that natural resources such as soil and water are limited in a specific country or region and think that technology can overcome these barriers. There is no shortage of criticisms that indicate its very general and not very rigorous nature, which seeks to seek a compromise between the current thinking of achieving permanent economic growth and environmental concerns about the future of humanity, giving rise to a mythology of development . It is particularly relevant that young students know the true scope of the term sustainable development, and the importance implicit in it for the life of the next generations, that is, they themselves and their future children and grandchildren.

however, it is still weak a rigorous formulation and on objective bases of the. progress towards sustainable development. In. (Gomez Sal a. 2009) an analysis of. the reasons why little progress has been made. in this direction from the initial formulation. of the concept. within the incorrect interpretations are. There are those who consider that sustainable means that an economic growth over time can be maintained unlimitedly (H.E. Daly and J.B. Coob 1994). some support the fact that natural resources like. soil and water are limited in a country or. concrete region and think technology. It can overcome these barriers (Lopez Ornat, 2004). others use the term as a. synonymous friendly with the environment. There is no shortage of criticisms that indicate his character. very general and not very rigorous that it deals with. look for a compromise between thought. in force to achieve a growth at all costs. economic and environmental concerns about the future of the. humanity giving rise to a mythology. development (Naredo, J.M., 2006). It is particularly relevant that the young students know the real scope of the term sustainable development and the importance implicit in it for the life of the next generations.

●      Background that gave rise to the concept of sustainable development

 

The actions of the human being using resources of the natural environment and generating waste that affected the environmental quality, began even before the economic activity arose (Gómez Gutiérrez, C., 2009). This antagonism did not stop being observed by some men of thought, although it did not constitute a transcendent concern for the general public and governments. When analyzing the growth statistics of the world population, which grew geometrically, while food production was on an arithmetical basis, he predicted a future situation in which the population of planet Earth would exceed the capacity of its soils to produce This augury never became a reality due to scientific and technological advances, but what is clear is that the famine is a reality that exceeds the natural capacity of some countries to overcome it (C. Gómez and J.A. Díaz Duque, 2013).

Some nineteenth-century classical economists such as (Ricardo and Mill)those  expressed their misgivings about the existence of limits to growth and the alternative of arriving at a steady state of the economy, but they relied respectively on the scientific-technical progress or the potential of society. to self-control, criteria that prevailed in economic thought in later years.

The result was the expansion of the colonial or neocolonial system, which at the beginning of the 20th century reached almost the entire planet. This led in that century to a growing concern of scientific scholars of the natural world, whose culmination was the development of ecology as science. However, as
It was rightly pointed out later: “The” ecological problem “is not as new as it is often made to appear. Even so, there two decisive differences: the earth is much more densely populated than it was in primitive times, and there is literally no speaking, new lands to move to “.(Schumacher, E. F., 1973).

An important precedent was the establishment by UNESCO of program “The man and the biosphere” in 1971.A reality emerged with strength: the planet Earth behaves as a single whole. Their different conventional components are are strongly interrelated and the human activity could, and indeed had fact, generate environmental problems whose solution could only be achieved with coordinated action at the international level. The hole in the ozone layer, the loss of biodiversity
and global warming, constitute some problems that reveal the close link between economic activity and its effects on the natural environment.

Despite the alerts and nervousness of those applied to the natural world, in the 20th century
The resource provided by the habitat, not had an adequate procedure by economic science and created the illusory that economic growth could be unlimited and satisfy human needs in constant advance.

While this was happening in the economic sciences, in the international political plane and
in the concerns of public opinion on the environment, they happened Transcendental changes in the second half of the twentieth century. After the end of the Second World War, the United Nations Organization is reformed, its objectives are extended and its membership increases. TO from 1945 and for more than three decades, a process of decolonization takes place,

particularly in Asia and Africa, which gives the emergence of new independent states,

characterized by having significant natural resources, a growing population with a repartition
unequal income and infrastructure deficient, with many unsatisfied social needs. Although many of them are trapped within the so-called neocolonialism, the pressure they exerted to achieve economic and social development similar to existing in its old metropolis, it drove
on the one hand to the creation of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries (NAM) that encouraged the fight for their rights within the United Nations, and on the other hand, to additional pressure about the global environment that started to worry political, scientific and
business of the developed world Two significant antecedents to the concept of sustainable development are produced as auction of the aforementioned aspects: in 1968 the so-called “Club of Rome” was created, composed of scientists, politicians, businessmen and economists, initiators of more stable economic growth and balanced for all countries. This group presents its first report in 1971, entitled “The limits of growth”, elaborated by
a group of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Dr. D. H. Meadows. The report, (Meadows, D. H. et al, 1972) from simulations to the

2100 of the existing growth projections of the economy and population, predicted pollution problems, loss of arable land and shortage of energy resources among others, reviewing
critically the financial development as global goal of humanity.

The other significant event, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1971, is considered to mark the beginning of the global environmentalist current. The Declaration of the Conference disclosed that
humanity is both the work and the architect of environment that surrounds her, which gives her the material sustenance and the opportunity to achieve her intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth The Conference recommended the Assembly General of the UN the creation of the Program United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and institutionalize June 5
as World Environment Day, aspects endorsed in the Resolution 2994 of December 1972. To the aforementioned aspects are united in 1973 the so-called “first energy crisis”,
which affected the world, but particularly the developed countries, and was followed in 1979 by the “second energy crisis”. These facts, together with the publication of several
books that impacted world public opinion in the 60s and 70s, collected in
Table 3.1 published in “(Naredo, 2010)”, establish precedents that guaranteed the path that led to the formation of the Environment and Development and the elaboration
later for this one of the “Brundtland Report”. The bases on which you can achieve a
sustainable development, make up a subject of permanent debate, and of course depend on the specific situations of a country or territory.
Although several international benchmarking criteria have been implemented and these respond to indicators previously agreed upon and accepted as desirable, it is difficult and complex to obtain a standard of assessment accepted to integrate the various factors
of economic, social, ecological and environmental order that sustain the evolution towards a
sustainable development.

REFERENCES

 

 

 

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION

What is sustainability?

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

RATIONALE

LITERATURE.

Sustainable development

Background that gave rise to the concept of sustainable development

REFERENCES

 

 

Aim,title: To critically analyse effective the sustainability of Festival event in Europe: a comparative of sustainability of green festival between Spain and UK.

 

INTRODUCTION

21st century society is a society concerned about the environment, climate change. In short, the sustainability of the environment. In which the importance of incorporating into our habits, both business and individual more ecological lines.
This work wants to delve into sustainable events within the European framework, making special reference to green festivals both in the UK and in Spain. From a critical perspective we will approach this last epigraph, making a comparison between both countries.
But when we speak of sustainability we are referring to, it is important to identify and define this concept since it is of vital importance to recognize the meaning of this word and its implications in order not to reach erroneous conclusions.

The availability of various information sources increases the spread of sustainability terms and their definitions, as employed by different authors and organizations. As a consequence, numerous new terms are emerging, or the existing ones are being extended in the sustainability field, but not enough critical attention has been given to the definitions and their semantic meanings. The multitude of definitions causes much confusion about their usage, since the meaning of some terms is either sloppy or similar, or is only slightly different from one another.

What is sustainability?

The ambiguity of the concept allows it to be accepted by very different ideologies,
what remains operational. In fact, the sustainable has almost become a
Tailor where almost everything can be accommodated. This circumstance explains, for example, the critical anti-advertising campaign created by the organization Ecologistas en

Action, which plays with the term until it becomes the sostemible development formula.4
The rest of the counter-ad shows a girl looking at a small defenseless animal. In
A banner can be read: “Man is extraordinary. With a few transfers
we are capable of destroying important river ecosystems. But planting a tree
we compensate everything. Let’s change the world without changing the planet. ” In a lower banner it reads: SUSTAINABLE SOS Development
That the sustainability rhetoric (everything valuable has to fall under this label) monopolizes so much
attention by marketing of all kinds, does not mean that any use of the term can
to be supported mainly from an intellectual point of view. It is evident that a term that has been endorsed from its origin with the best blessings of the “experts” in
environment, of politicians and civil society, constitutes an extraordinary demand for
sale for any product, something like a label of environmental quality and even moral.

Perhaps, nevertheless, Michael Jacobs is right when he states that the search for a unitary and precise meaning of sustainability is erroneous.6 Like other political concepts,
such as justice or democracy, the really decisive debate is in the clarification of the
operational objectives of the same, that is, the way to put it into practice. If we confuse
the semantic clarification of the concept with the justification of the form or ways of understanding it in practice, we misinterpret, in its judgment, the true nature and function of the
political concepts, which would be disputed or debatable (contestable).
The disputed concepts would be complex and normative, with two levels of meaning. The first level is unitary, but vague.
According to Jacobs, the disputed concepts are
defined in the first level through a series of central ideas that are general, substantive and non-redundant. The most important thing, however, is that we use these terms
because there are no others that express the same type of main or essential ideas. And that
even for those who use different interpretations, an agreement could be reached on
the evaluation of situations in which justice, sustainability or democracy are absent, to cite three examples of disputed concepts.
But here the analysis of the meaning of sustainability does not end. According to Jacobs, the trait
The distinctive of disputed concepts appears on the second level of meaning. This is already the sphere of politics and here lies the dispute -politics- about practical interpretation
thereof.
The concept of sustainability or sustainable development got from the years
Eighty the applause of very different political, moral and vital conceptions. Versus
Previous times in which the idea of ​​sustainability was also debated ardently, that is, on the first level of meaning, it was possible to consolidate a
important consensus regarding the need to overcome an unviable model of development.
Later, sustainable development became one of the fundamental political objectives in the field of the environment; yes, once the environmental dimension
it began to constitute a fundamental dimension of the political agenda. The environmental becomes political.
However, it has not achieved consensus, nor does it seem that it will do so in the future, the meaning
second-level operational level of sustainability. The risk of such a dispersion of interpretations is the sustainability: that everything pretends to be passed by sustainable.

However, it has not achieved consensus, nor does it seem that it will do so in the future, the meaning
second-level operational level of sustainability. The risk of such a dispersion of interpretations is the sustainability: that everything pretends to be passed by sustainable. The advantage is, without
However, allowing social debate of the problem, requires citizen participation in
all sectors, and helps to conceive the issue as something more than a debate among experts, once understood the concept of sustainability as a practical, political concept.

Currently, the terms sustainability and sustainable development are interchangeable. The first one is the Report
Brundlandt. According to this, sustainable development is one that “meets the needs of the
present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs “.8
The second definition is that of the United Nations Environmental Program and the Report
Caring for the Earth, of the World Union for the Conservation of Nature. It reads like this: “development that improves the quality of life of the people within the framework of the carrying capacity
of the ecosystems that support life “.9
The concept of sustainability is also a relative and instrumental concept.
10 First, it depends on the environmental matrix to which it applies. The contemporary biosphere
It is not sustainable. Globally it does not export waste and not import solar energy, it would leave
to work immediately. In addition, sustainability is not a value in itself. It is in
how much guarantees the continuity of life on Earth. It is not a magic formula either.
There are no definitive solutions.
Finally, sustainability is easier to characterize negatively, insofar as
absence of sustainability, which as desideratum or something that must be achieved. A
Once here, it would be possible to highlight some of the basic ideas that accompany it or that have
finished impregnating the nuclear meaning of the concept: 11
The idea that something must be sustained. The concept of sustainable development implies,
of entry, the conciliation between the nature and the economic activity of man. Well
once we are aware that only at the cost of the annihilation of life could the
economy continue to grow at the current rate, the only possible development is a development that
slow growth This very general idea has admitted various particular interpretations, ranging from the commitment to a mere deceleration of growth (Union
European Union) to the defense of degrowth (Riechmann, García, Espinosa) .

 

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

Aim,title:To critically analyse effective the sustainability of Festival event in Europe: a comparative of sustainability of green festival between Spain and UK.

  1. To critically analyse the three pillars of sustainability -social sustainability,environmental sustainability,economic sustainability.
  2. To critically assess the advances in ecological terms.
  3. To critically compare a sustainability of green festival between Spain and UK.
  4. To analytically

This project are focus in four objective ,it have been relevant for development the aim.

 

 

RATIONALE

For the development of this work I have chosen as the theme the organization of events
because my expectation for the future lies within the companies that carry out this type of activity, but specializing in a more ecological vision of the event, thus reaching all possible potential.
, I would like to dedicate myself to the organization of events. I think it’s a vocational profession and very different from
Others.To personal interest, the choice of this topic for the final work is justified by the growing
importance in recent years of the organization of events in all areas and their
presence in the communication strategies of the relationship departments
public. Communication has to be reinvented and increasingly seek new paths
to attract the attention of their audiences. In this context, events are an element
key. According to the Study of the year 2018 of the Eventoplus group there is a clear growth of the market of events that is reflected in the number of events that are organized. However, the budgets of each of them do not increase, that is, there are more events, but not
More budget for each event.
But what is a “sustainable event”? Why specialize in a more sustainable vision of the event?
First, the sustainable event is one that takes into account the negative impacts on the environment in which it develops, and tries to minimize them to the maximum to produce the least possible environmental impact on their environment.
Secondly, contrary to what one thinks, it is not more expensive to organize an event in a sustainable way. And another advantage is that it allows the company to project an institutional image consistent with its principles of Corporate Social Responsibility

 

LITERATURE.

●      Sustainable development

 The origin of the concept of sustainable development is associated with the growing concern the link between economic and social development and its more or less immediate effects on the natural environment. A close relationship between economic development and the environment was expressed within the framework of the United Nations with the creation by this body in the year 1983 of the Development Committee. To direct this Commission, it was designated

 • To analyze the issues related to the development and the environment and formulate proposals in this regard.

• Propose new forms of cooperation development and environmental issues.

 • Promote levels of understanding and commitment to these objectives by April of 1987, the Commission published and released its report, entitled “Our common future” (“Our common future “, in English language) also known as” Brundtland Report “(Brundtland, GH, which introduces the concept of development in the aforementioned statement, could not pretend with the concept of sustainable development, it is necessary to highlight some of the conclusions collected in the “Brundtland Report”, which are mentioned below, inevitably to the gradual depletion of the planet’s natural resources, environmental degradation and the increase of economic and social development with the category of sustainable development.

From the social point of view, the report considered important to analyze population growth in its link with the availability of natural resources and energy resources, water, technical infrastructure, housing and physical space.

In the case of the natural or ecological component, the report warned about the loss of biodiversity and the risk of extinction of numerous species, as well as the intense degradation or fragmentation of .

 Natural resources marked some limitations to economic growth, particularly the depletion of non-renewable resources and the ability of the biosphere to absorb them

their most efficient use, from using them to a lesser extent.

Several guidelines were recommended in the “Brundtland Report” to achieve a compromise between economic development and the environment within which can be highlighted (Gómez Gutiérrez C. and J. A. Díaz Duque, 2013):

• Governments should play a more dynamic role as disseminators of information on natural resources and environmental quality, and promote an annual accounting of these resources as an asset at the social level.

 • The regulatory role should be strengthened in order to reduce costs and efficiently use natural resources.

On all these aspects, it is undeniable that there has subsequently been a significant change at the international level. «Earth Summit», held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, adopted as a political objective the concept of sustainable development and gave way to a set of international agreements called to address several of the environmental problems included in the «Brundtland Report » Many countries, including Cuba, included this objective in their constitution or other legal bodies, and have created ministries, agencies or institutes that promote this purpose.

These environmental concerns have also reached the business world. Many large corporations and companies try to change their image by adopting policies that respect the environment and have opened a commercial space to the so-called clean products, ecological productions or agricultural productions kilometer zero, initiatives that highlight the non-generation of waste, the food produced without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides, or without the need to travel long distances with fuel consumption. In this context, the use of the term sustainable development has become popular and is nowadays frequently used, although sometimes with distorted interpretations. An analysis of the reasons why little progress has been made in this direction since the initial formulation of the concept is included.

Among the incorrect interpretations are those who consider that sustainable means that economic growth can be maintained unlimitedly over time. Some reinforce the fact that natural resources such as soil and water are limited in a specific country or region and think that technology can overcome these barriers. There is no shortage of criticisms that indicate its very general and not very rigorous nature, which seeks to seek a compromise between the current thinking of achieving permanent economic growth and environmental concerns about the future of humanity, giving rise to a mythology of development . It is particularly relevant that young students know the true scope of the term sustainable development, and the importance implicit in it for the life of the next generations, that is, they themselves and their future children and grandchildren.

however, it is still weak a rigorous formulation and on objective bases of the. progress towards sustainable development. In. (Gomez Sal a. 2009) an analysis of. the reasons why little progress has been made. in this direction from the initial formulation. of the concept. within the incorrect interpretations are. There are those who consider that sustainable means that an economic growth over time can be maintained unlimitedly (H.E. Daly and J.B. Coob 1994). some support the fact that natural resources like. soil and water are limited in a country or. concrete region and think technology. It can overcome these barriers (Lopez Ornat, 2004). others use the term as a. synonymous friendly with the environment. There is no shortage of criticisms that indicate his character. very general and not very rigorous that it deals with. look for a compromise between thought. in force to achieve a growth at all costs. economic and environmental concerns about the future of the. humanity giving rise to a mythology. development (Naredo, J.M., 2006). It is particularly relevant that the young students know the real scope of the term sustainable development and the importance implicit in it for the life of the next generations.

●      Background that gave rise to the concept of sustainable development

 

The actions of the human being using resources of the natural environment and generating waste that affected the environmental quality, began even before the economic activity arose (Gómez Gutiérrez, C., 2009). This antagonism did not stop being observed by some men of thought, although it did not constitute a transcendent concern for the general public and governments. When analyzing the growth statistics of the world population, which grew geometrically, while food production was on an arithmetical basis, he predicted a future situation in which the population of planet Earth would exceed the capacity of its soils to produce This augury never became a reality due to scientific and technological advances, but what is clear is that the famine is a reality that exceeds the natural capacity of some countries to overcome it (C. Gómez and J.A. Díaz Duque, 2013).

Some nineteenth-century classical economists such as (Ricardo and Mill)those  expressed their misgivings about the existence of limits to growth and the alternative of arriving at a steady state of the economy, but they relied respectively on the scientific-technical progress or the potential of society. to self-control, criteria that prevailed in economic thought in later years.

The result was the expansion of the colonial or neocolonial system, which at the beginning of the 20th century reached almost the entire planet. This led in that century to a growing concern of scientific scholars of the natural world, whose culmination was the development of ecology as science. However, as
It was rightly pointed out later: “The” ecological problem “is not as new as it is often made to appear. Even so, there two decisive differences: the earth is much more densely populated than it was in primitive times, and there is literally no speaking, new lands to move to “.(Schumacher, E. F., 1973).

An important precedent was the establishment by UNESCO of program “The man and the biosphere” in 1971.A reality emerged with strength: the planet Earth behaves as a single whole. Their different conventional components are are strongly interrelated and the human activity could, and indeed had fact, generate environmental problems whose solution could only be achieved with coordinated action at the international level. The hole in the ozone layer, the loss of biodiversity
and global warming, constitute some problems that reveal the close link between economic activity and its effects on the natural environment.

Despite the alerts and nervousness of those applied to the natural world, in the 20th century
The resource provided by the habitat, not had an adequate procedure by economic science and created the illusory that economic growth could be unlimited and satisfy human needs in constant advance.

While this was happening in the economic sciences, in the international political plane and
in the concerns of public opinion on the environment, they happened Transcendental changes in the second half of the twentieth century. After the end of the Second World War, the United Nations Organization is reformed, its objectives are extended and its membership increases. TO from 1945 and for more than three decades, a process of decolonization takes place,

particularly in Asia and Africa, which gives the emergence of new independent states,

characterized by having significant natural resources, a growing population with a repartition
unequal income and infrastructure deficient, with many unsatisfied social needs. Although many of them are trapped within the so-called neocolonialism, the pressure they exerted to achieve economic and social development similar to existing in its old metropolis, it drove
on the one hand to the creation of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries (NAM) that encouraged the fight for their rights within the United Nations, and on the other hand, to additional pressure about the global environment that started to worry political, scientific and
business of the developed world Two significant antecedents to the concept of sustainable development are produced as auction of the aforementioned aspects: in 1968 the so-called “Club of Rome” was created, composed of scientists, politicians, businessmen and economists, initiators of more stable economic growth and balanced for all countries. This group presents its first report in 1971, entitled “The limits of growth”, elaborated by
a group of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Dr. D. H. Meadows. The report, (Meadows, D. H. et al, 1972) from simulations to the

2100 of the existing growth projections of the economy and population, predicted pollution problems, loss of arable land and shortage of energy resources among others, reviewing
critically the financial development as global goal of humanity.

The other significant event, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1971, is considered to mark the beginning of the global environmentalist current. The Declaration of the Conference disclosed that
humanity is both the work and the architect of environment that surrounds her, which gives her the material sustenance and the opportunity to achieve her intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth The Conference recommended the Assembly General of the UN the creation of the Program United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and institutionalize June 5
as World Environment Day, aspects endorsed in the Resolution 2994 of December 1972. To the aforementioned aspects are united in 1973 the so-called “first energy crisis”,
which affected the world, but particularly the developed countries, and was followed in 1979 by the “second energy crisis”. These facts, together with the publication of several
books that impacted world public opinion in the 60s and 70s, collected in
Table 3.1 published in “(Naredo, 2010)”, establish precedents that guaranteed the path that led to the formation of the Environment and Development and the elaboration
later for this one of the “Brundtland Report”. The bases on which you can achieve a
sustainable development, make up a subject of permanent debate, and of course depend on the specific situations of a country or territory.
Although several international benchmarking criteria have been implemented and these respond to indicators previously agreed upon and accepted as desirable, it is difficult and complex to obtain a standard of assessment accepted to integrate the various factors
of economic, social, ecological and environmental order that sustain the evolution towards a
sustainable development.

REFERENCES

 

 

 

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