Evaluation of Applied Science Post 14 Education

3036 words (12 pages) Essay

8th Feb 2020 Education Reference this

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Introduction

This research looks at the current post 14 education curriculum with a special focus on the applied science curriculum. As the student education level increases, the need to introduce the engagement and participative form of learning also increases (Johnson, 2007). Through this research concerns such as recruitment and training of expert in the profession to pass on effective knowledge to the post 14 students is contemplated. Understanding the advanced learning needs of these students and post education application of the knowledge by these students in their future and everyday life, the relevance of this study is recognized. Homer, (2014) observed that there is a lack of resources, administrative support and expertise associated with mathematics and science teachers at this level. With this in mind, the overview looks at findings from applicable literature and government reports to highlight that there is a need to improve the school science curriculum, and improve the teaching models of science in schools.

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This research looks at the varied internal factors such as session plan, staffing and hiring, and administrative aids as well as external factors such as government and education quality are assessed. The research focuses on the quality of the science teaching workforce at this education level, and raises concerns about the role of the policy makers influencing the curriculum and educational framework. Recommendations to improve the scope of science based teaching in the classrooms are provided.

It is a good practice for teachers to use research and evidence to develop their teaching skills. Many educational researchers have worked very hard to improve the system of education. There are also people in the educational system who acts indirectly or directly towards the improvement of curriculum.

Curriculum makes up different parts of educational system, including, the planning, development and evaluation of educational programs. Curriculum also tends to mostly focus on the achievement of learning outcomes in learners such that the result is a guide of what the teacher will do – ‘the how to strategy’-  to achieve those learning outcomes. The term curriculum has been widely defined in a variety of ways and each of the definition describes an aspect of teaching work or an influence on the same. Curriculum is a body of knowledge, content and subjects. Smith, (2000)

Curriculum can be referred to as a process (a particular course of action intended to achieve a result) or to define and describe praxis (ways of doing things). Smith, (2000). In all cases the term curriculum infers an aspect of teacher work and the key influences on same. Curriculum is a series of experience which children and youth should have in order to achieve objectives. Bobbitt (1975). Curriculum is a way of communicating essential educational concepts that is open for critical scrutiny. Stenhouse, (1975).

The two most used forms of curriculum are the product and the process model. The product model is more related to my own teaching with occasional uses of the process model. With this model, it deals with detailed of what learners should know in order to do what is expected of them, in other words, objectives are set, plans made, and then applied accordingly. This model was established by two American writers Frank Bobbitt (1918; 1928) and Ralph W. Tyler (1949). This product model is more aligned with behaviourism theory and is very much teacher centred. There are a number of criticisms with this model which include making learners passive, which restricts freedom on creativity.

Since the introduction of the national curriculum in schools, the UK education sector has provided many opportunities for the students through engaging, participation, theoretical and practical application of their content (Dobson, 2009). Through this research it’s highlighted that while there are no right models of learning, the involvement of associations such as the English Baccalaureate (EBacc) which further contributes towards the improvement of the education framework through introducing standardization concepts in the learning process. A study carried out by UK Parliament (2014) found that higher education in the country focuses on the efficiency and effectiveness of the curriculum, and inclusion and a standardized  parameter such as EBacc ensures that a benchmark education is attained by the young adults with respect to specific study choices (Jin et al. 2016). The inclusion of these parameters has increased engagement, motivation of higher learning for the students, which further contribute towards study of specific aspects in the education sector.However, Jin et al. (2016) also mention that the inclusion of such a framework limits the involvement of the students in terms of subject preference based on their personality, and they only chose subjects that are made compulsory to them. In a study by Gill and Bell (2011), it was found that students in post 14 and 16 level tended to choose subjects based on the mix of the course and not on their personality, as a result it found that science based curriculums are often not studied in later years. Having in mind the need to provide sufficient scientists, science based researchers and engineers and technical professionals now and for the future, a need to overcome this challenge is recognized (NFER, 2011). It is for this reason a focus towards incorporating scientific literacy and introducing students towards social-scientific issues such as global warming and other geographical concerns is strongly required in present day English classrooms., despite these preparations the ‘how science works’ principles are not effectively enabled in the classrooms (Banner et al., 2010), and effectively encourages students towards science in the classrooms at a higher level continues to be a challenge. In their review Dobson (2018) notes that administration presumed that inclusion of science based learning in the classroom will increase once EBacc will be introduce with respect to these curriculum. The same has been noted with a recent 49% improvement in this context.

However, despite this the science based learning Wynarczyk & Hale, (2011) suggested the interest of the student towards science based subject is based on their experience, interest and presence of educator with the subject.

Further discussion on student’s enthusiasm towards science is presented by Ryder and Banner (2010), he argues that entitlement to study sciences is often restricted to the highly achieving students, or from a wealthier background. As a result it somewhat limits the adoption of the students for the science based subject at higher level. In their study, Fairbrother and Dillon (2009) argue that while the English education system has become standardized through the inclusion of GCSEs (General Certificates of Secondary Education), the high attainment in particular years restricts the student to gain qualifications in applied science subjects.Fairbrother and Dillon (2009) further argued that science education continues and its adoption at higher level is also impacted by the national debate. In their review, NFER (2011) argues that the lack of options provided by the school administration in the form of BTEC as well as challenges in the form of administrative support has been known to limit the uptake of the education of science in the secondary and senior secondary level.Homer, (2014) noted there are many downsides which influence the study of science in the later years by the students in an English curriculum. For example, an awareness of the scope and application of the science based subject as career and the relevance of the science as a rewarding profession and this should be firmly communicated to students. Mujtaba and Reis (2012), argues that social behaviour theory proposed by Bandura often influences the cognitive and critical decision making of an individual. If a child is introduced to family members, peers or teachers which believe in the relevance of science based profession, than the likelihood of the students in the uptake of science based profession later in life. However, the absence of the same in the present time is seen as a reason for poor take up of science in the post education level.

In their review, Archer et al. (2010) notes that the role of the teacher in terms of the development of a positive attitude for the learners is emphasised with respect to core subjects such as maths or science. The interaction of the student is further enhanced through the enabling of the social-cultural factors, classroom engagement, and identifying student to the subject matter. However, Jin et al. (2016) argues that the lack of the involvement of the students in science based classrooms has a negative impact in terms of the ‘student identity’ towards the subject choice. This is also identified in a review conducted by Archer et al. (2012) the poor association of the students to science based subject in many classrooms is not only linked to their particular course based perception, but is something that has developed over a period of time.According to Maltese and Tai (2010) many students consider leaving science courses in the later years of their education owing to the lack of the involvement of the experts which can retain the interest of the students. Studies have shown that (Mujtaba and Reiss, 2012; Archer et al. 2012 Smith, 2011) while social economic background does not directly impact the inclination of the students to adopt a science based curriculum, the students are exposed to poor scientific experts, lack of administrative support and poor governmental orientation with respect to this subject choice at this stage, as a result of which they face limitation is adoption of the science based subjects at post 14 and beyond level.

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As part of the internal drivers which influence the decision making of the students in the context of science based adoption staffing is not the only concern. As per a review conducted by Homer (2014) the nature of the science course and their lesson in the earlier levels also impact the student’s perception. In this context the author looks into the lack of assistive and education tools (examples, laboratory equipment) provided by the administration for classroom learning which impacts student engagement. If the student doesn’t fully relate, then student engagement to the content is jeopardized.

Research argues that the recent push towards science based courses through EBacc has contributed towards increased number of students opting for science careers as opposed to earlier (Homer et al. 2011). Through this overview it is learned that the poor social-economic status of the schools in many sectors has a direct connection with the lack of administrative tools at the schooling level. This in turn has a direct impact on the attainment gaps between the adoptions of science based curriculum in the coming years, and following science in the later years. A study conducted by Homer (2011), noted value-added attainment of a science degree can be enhanced in the classrooms through the inclusion of the students and teacher feedback system and their engagement. Furthermore, focus towards in between sciences modelling is argued by the research to improve the scope of application associated with the subject. Through the course of the present review focus towards enabling a status of positive influence on post-14 participants is argued as a factor of positive education experience especially in the context of the external and internal factors. For example Ofsted (2012) require for us to be more robust in our evaluating, teaching and assessment for the betterment of the curriculum and improve learning. 

  Through the course of this essay on post 14 education examinations with science based courses is completed to argue that there is a need for support of England and Wales’s administration in utilizing student teacher feedback for improving the scope of curriculum based engagement.

Meanwhile, A-level science is normally the main subject as the route into college and healthcare based courses in England, which are limited to certain segment of the society only owing to the limitation in form of the tuition fee.

Recommendations

Through this essay, it is argued that there is a need to include teaching and learning exercises that are set in work environment settings for students to enable an interest towards science based subject (Donnely, 2009). In their review Johnson, 2007, also makes a case for incorporating learning results in a more widespread way than is common in science education, with the emphasis on independent student actions, including singular research and report composing. It will be vital to include more field trips. It is also vital to utilize arrangement of student work for summative appraisal. It is also vital to invest in more modern laboratory equipment. There is a relevance to include a lesser emphasis on substantive logical information contrasted and other science capabilities at the lower study level to improve student uptake towards the subject. It is vital to recognise a scope of imperative potential commitments that Applied Science could make inside current educational motivation. It could bolster a more prominent inclusion with science… In the present circumstance, Applied Science courses are probably not going to be the course of decision for the most exceptionally accomplishing science students, especially given the government’s developing emphasis on the different sciences. However, in an all the more clearly ‘professional’ appearance it could bolster courses for post-14 students entering specialized or science-related occupations.

Conclusion

Through this overview it is highlighted that help is required, however it must be seen that the dissimilar and focused nature of the capabilities which have grown up somewhat haphazardly and together with political vulnerabilities about their future, implies that directed help will be not be anything but difficult to prepare. The absence of assets for these Applied Science capabilities appear differently in relation to a scope of other educational programs ventures which have been embraced in 14– 19 science. These generally include less extreme development, yet are focused on all the more exceedingly accomplishing students.  It is hard to disregard the sharp distinction in status between Applied Science and these different capabilities, and it is enticing to summon this distinction to clarify the disregard that it has encountered in the recent years for education in terms of the science based subject. Hence, support of varied variables is needed in this regard.

References

Introduction

This research looks at the current post 14 education curriculum with a special focus on the applied science curriculum. As the student education level increases, the need to introduce the engagement and participative form of learning also increases (Johnson, 2007). Through this research concerns such as recruitment and training of expert in the profession to pass on effective knowledge to the post 14 students is contemplated. Understanding the advanced learning needs of these students and post education application of the knowledge by these students in their future and everyday life, the relevance of this study is recognized. Homer, (2014) observed that there is a lack of resources, administrative support and expertise associated with mathematics and science teachers at this level. With this in mind, the overview looks at findings from applicable literature and government reports to highlight that there is a need to improve the school science curriculum, and improve the teaching models of science in schools.

This research looks at the varied internal factors such as session plan, staffing and hiring, and administrative aids as well as external factors such as government and education quality are assessed. The research focuses on the quality of the science teaching workforce at this education level, and raises concerns about the role of the policy makers influencing the curriculum and educational framework. Recommendations to improve the scope of science based teaching in the classrooms are provided.

It is a good practice for teachers to use research and evidence to develop their teaching skills. Many educational researchers have worked very hard to improve the system of education. There are also people in the educational system who acts indirectly or directly towards the improvement of curriculum.

Curriculum makes up different parts of educational system, including, the planning, development and evaluation of educational programs. Curriculum also tends to mostly focus on the achievement of learning outcomes in learners such that the result is a guide of what the teacher will do – ‘the how to strategy’-  to achieve those learning outcomes. The term curriculum has been widely defined in a variety of ways and each of the definition describes an aspect of teaching work or an influence on the same. Curriculum is a body of knowledge, content and subjects. Smith, (2000)

Curriculum can be referred to as a process (a particular course of action intended to achieve a result) or to define and describe praxis (ways of doing things). Smith, (2000). In all cases the term curriculum infers an aspect of teacher work and the key influences on same. Curriculum is a series of experience which children and youth should have in order to achieve objectives. Bobbitt (1975). Curriculum is a way of communicating essential educational concepts that is open for critical scrutiny. Stenhouse, (1975).

The two most used forms of curriculum are the product and the process model. The product model is more related to my own teaching with occasional uses of the process model. With this model, it deals with detailed of what learners should know in order to do what is expected of them, in other words, objectives are set, plans made, and then applied accordingly. This model was established by two American writers Frank Bobbitt (1918; 1928) and Ralph W. Tyler (1949). This product model is more aligned with behaviourism theory and is very much teacher centred. There are a number of criticisms with this model which include making learners passive, which restricts freedom on creativity.

Since the introduction of the national curriculum in schools, the UK education sector has provided many opportunities for the students through engaging, participation, theoretical and practical application of their content (Dobson, 2009). Through this research it’s highlighted that while there are no right models of learning, the involvement of associations such as the English Baccalaureate (EBacc) which further contributes towards the improvement of the education framework through introducing standardization concepts in the learning process. A study carried out by UK Parliament (2014) found that higher education in the country focuses on the efficiency and effectiveness of the curriculum, and inclusion and a standardized  parameter such as EBacc ensures that a benchmark education is attained by the young adults with respect to specific study choices (Jin et al. 2016). The inclusion of these parameters has increased engagement, motivation of higher learning for the students, which further contribute towards study of specific aspects in the education sector.However, Jin et al. (2016) also mention that the inclusion of such a framework limits the involvement of the students in terms of subject preference based on their personality, and they only chose subjects that are made compulsory to them. In a study by Gill and Bell (2011), it was found that students in post 14 and 16 level tended to choose subjects based on the mix of the course and not on their personality, as a result it found that science based curriculums are often not studied in later years. Having in mind the need to provide sufficient scientists, science based researchers and engineers and technical professionals now and for the future, a need to overcome this challenge is recognized (NFER, 2011). It is for this reason a focus towards incorporating scientific literacy and introducing students towards social-scientific issues such as global warming and other geographical concerns is strongly required in present day English classrooms., despite these preparations the ‘how science works’ principles are not effectively enabled in the classrooms (Banner et al., 2010), and effectively encourages students towards science in the classrooms at a higher level continues to be a challenge. In their review Dobson (2018) notes that administration presumed that inclusion of science based learning in the classroom will increase once EBacc will be introduce with respect to these curriculum. The same has been noted with a recent 49% improvement in this context.

However, despite this the science based learning Wynarczyk & Hale, (2011) suggested the interest of the student towards science based subject is based on their experience, interest and presence of educator with the subject.

Further discussion on student’s enthusiasm towards science is presented by Ryder and Banner (2010), he argues that entitlement to study sciences is often restricted to the highly achieving students, or from a wealthier background. As a result it somewhat limits the adoption of the students for the science based subject at higher level. In their study, Fairbrother and Dillon (2009) argue that while the English education system has become standardized through the inclusion of GCSEs (General Certificates of Secondary Education), the high attainment in particular years restricts the student to gain qualifications in applied science subjects.Fairbrother and Dillon (2009) further argued that science education continues and its adoption at higher level is also impacted by the national debate. In their review, NFER (2011) argues that the lack of options provided by the school administration in the form of BTEC as well as challenges in the form of administrative support has been known to limit the uptake of the education of science in the secondary and senior secondary level.Homer, (2014) noted there are many downsides which influence the study of science in the later years by the students in an English curriculum. For example, an awareness of the scope and application of the science based subject as career and the relevance of the science as a rewarding profession and this should be firmly communicated to students. Mujtaba and Reis (2012), argues that social behaviour theory proposed by Bandura often influences the cognitive and critical decision making of an individual. If a child is introduced to family members, peers or teachers which believe in the relevance of science based profession, than the likelihood of the students in the uptake of science based profession later in life. However, the absence of the same in the present time is seen as a reason for poor take up of science in the post education level.

In their review, Archer et al. (2010) notes that the role of the teacher in terms of the development of a positive attitude for the learners is emphasised with respect to core subjects such as maths or science. The interaction of the student is further enhanced through the enabling of the social-cultural factors, classroom engagement, and identifying student to the subject matter. However, Jin et al. (2016) argues that the lack of the involvement of the students in science based classrooms has a negative impact in terms of the ‘student identity’ towards the subject choice. This is also identified in a review conducted by Archer et al. (2012) the poor association of the students to science based subject in many classrooms is not only linked to their particular course based perception, but is something that has developed over a period of time.According to Maltese and Tai (2010) many students consider leaving science courses in the later years of their education owing to the lack of the involvement of the experts which can retain the interest of the students. Studies have shown that (Mujtaba and Reiss, 2012; Archer et al. 2012 Smith, 2011) while social economic background does not directly impact the inclination of the students to adopt a science based curriculum, the students are exposed to poor scientific experts, lack of administrative support and poor governmental orientation with respect to this subject choice at this stage, as a result of which they face limitation is adoption of the science based subjects at post 14 and beyond level.

As part of the internal drivers which influence the decision making of the students in the context of science based adoption staffing is not the only concern. As per a review conducted by Homer (2014) the nature of the science course and their lesson in the earlier levels also impact the student’s perception. In this context the author looks into the lack of assistive and education tools (examples, laboratory equipment) provided by the administration for classroom learning which impacts student engagement. If the student doesn’t fully relate, then student engagement to the content is jeopardized.

Research argues that the recent push towards science based courses through EBacc has contributed towards increased number of students opting for science careers as opposed to earlier (Homer et al. 2011). Through this overview it is learned that the poor social-economic status of the schools in many sectors has a direct connection with the lack of administrative tools at the schooling level. This in turn has a direct impact on the attainment gaps between the adoptions of science based curriculum in the coming years, and following science in the later years. A study conducted by Homer (2011), noted value-added attainment of a science degree can be enhanced in the classrooms through the inclusion of the students and teacher feedback system and their engagement. Furthermore, focus towards in between sciences modelling is argued by the research to improve the scope of application associated with the subject. Through the course of the present review focus towards enabling a status of positive influence on post-14 participants is argued as a factor of positive education experience especially in the context of the external and internal factors. For example Ofsted (2012) require for us to be more robust in our evaluating, teaching and assessment for the betterment of the curriculum and improve learning. 

  Through the course of this essay on post 14 education examinations with science based courses is completed to argue that there is a need for support of England and Wales’s administration in utilizing student teacher feedback for improving the scope of curriculum based engagement.

Meanwhile, A-level science is normally the main subject as the route into college and healthcare based courses in England, which are limited to certain segment of the society only owing to the limitation in form of the tuition fee.

Recommendations

Through this essay, it is argued that there is a need to include teaching and learning exercises that are set in work environment settings for students to enable an interest towards science based subject (Donnely, 2009). In their review Johnson, 2007, also makes a case for incorporating learning results in a more widespread way than is common in science education, with the emphasis on independent student actions, including singular research and report composing. It will be vital to include more field trips. It is also vital to utilize arrangement of student work for summative appraisal. It is also vital to invest in more modern laboratory equipment. There is a relevance to include a lesser emphasis on substantive logical information contrasted and other science capabilities at the lower study level to improve student uptake towards the subject. It is vital to recognise a scope of imperative potential commitments that Applied Science could make inside current educational motivation. It could bolster a more prominent inclusion with science… In the present circumstance, Applied Science courses are probably not going to be the course of decision for the most exceptionally accomplishing science students, especially given the government’s developing emphasis on the different sciences. However, in an all the more clearly ‘professional’ appearance it could bolster courses for post-14 students entering specialized or science-related occupations.

Conclusion

Through this overview it is highlighted that help is required, however it must be seen that the dissimilar and focused nature of the capabilities which have grown up somewhat haphazardly and together with political vulnerabilities about their future, implies that directed help will be not be anything but difficult to prepare. The absence of assets for these Applied Science capabilities appear differently in relation to a scope of other educational programs ventures which have been embraced in 14– 19 science. These generally include less extreme development, yet are focused on all the more exceedingly accomplishing students.  It is hard to disregard the sharp distinction in status between Applied Science and these different capabilities, and it is enticing to summon this distinction to clarify the disregard that it has encountered in the recent years for education in terms of the science based subject. Hence, support of varied variables is needed in this regard.

References

  • Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2012). “Balancing acts”: Elementary school girls’ negotiations of femininity, achievement, and science. Science Education, 96(6), 967-989
  • Banner, I., Donnelly, J., Homer, M. & Ryder, Jim (2010) The impact of recent reforms in the key stage 4 science curriculum. School Science Review, 92 (339), pp.101–10
  • Bobbitt, F. (1928) How to Make a Curriculum, Boston: (Houghton)
  • Dobson, A. (2018) Towards ‘MFL for all’ in England: a historical perspective, The Language Learning Journal, 46:1, 71-85, DOI: 10.1080/09571736.2017.1382058
  • Donnelly, J. (2009). Vocationalism and school science education. Studies in Science
  • Education, 45(2), 225-254.
    Donnoley, J (2009): An invisible revolution? Applied Science in the 14-19 curriculum: A Report to the Nuffield Foundation
  • Gill, T. & Bell, J.F. (2011) What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics? International Journal of Science Education, pp.1–20.
  • Homer, MS and Banner, I (2014) Measuring determinants of post-compulsory participation in science: a comparative study using national data. British Educational Research Journal, 40 (4). pp.
  • Henriksen, E. K., Dillon, J., & Ryder, J. (Eds.). (forthcoming). Understanding student choice and participation: Springer.
  • Johnson H (2007): Subject to change: new thinking on the curriculum
  • Jin, W., Muriel, A and Sibeita, W (2016). Subject and course choices at ages 14 and 16 amongst young people in England: insights from behavioural economics
  • Maltese, A.V. & Tai, R.H. (2010) Eyeballs in the Fridge: Sources of early interest in science. International Journal of Science Education, 32 (5), pp.669–685.
  • Millar, R. (2011) Reviewing the National Curriculum for science: opportunities and challenges. Curriculum Journal, 22, pp.167–185.
  • Ofsted (2012) How Colleges Improve.
  • NEFR (2011). Exploring young people’s views on science education: Report to the Wellcome Trust
  • Smith, E. (2011) Staying in the science stream: patterns of participation in A-level science subjects in the UK – PB – Routledge. Educational Studies, 37 (1), p.59.
  • Smith, M.K. (1996, 2000) Curriculum theory and practice, the encylopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-cuuric.htm. Mark K. Smith (1996,2000)
  • Stenhouse, L (1975) An introduction to Curriculum Research and Development, London
  • Wynarczyk, P. & Hale, S. (2011) Improving Take Up of Science and Technology Subjects in Schools and Colleges: A Synthesis Review. ESRC/DCSF. A

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