Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory in the Classroom

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8th Feb 2020 Education Reference this

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     During our lifespan, we are faced with many different learning experiences. For instance, every individual has different learning styles or different multiple intelligences. The style of learning is a way by which we can have the advantage of knowledge about our environment. Howard Gardner (1983, 1993) introduced his ‘Theory of Multiple Intelligence’. Multiple Intelligence theory is the management about intelligence which is based on neuroscience practices. Every individual is unique, so not everyone’s brain works or takes action in the same way. I also believe that Howard’s theory will be very useful in the school curriculum for a typical child’s development or for children with the development disability. Within the last few years, Autism Spectrum Disorder, a neurological disorder has increased rapidly. Individuals suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder or any other developmental disabilities may face many difficulties in their personal learning styles and in their school placements. However, the theories of Multiple Intelligence given by Howard (1983) may be helpful for a typical individual or an individual with the developmental disability in their different learning styles. He believed that there are eight different bits of intelligence in humans.

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      The theory of Multiple Intelligence has motivated the present investigation. Gardiner redefined intelligence as an ability to solve the problems or create products of value in a culture or community. Gardiner identified 8 distinct forms of intelligence that are influenced by all people but differ in degrees. The eight bits of intelligence are identified as linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. The asset of ‘Visual-Spatial Intelligence’: the individuals who are good in this type of intelligence are good at visualizing things. These people are usually good with locating directions as well as interpreting maps, following charts, analyzing videos and pictures. They like to read and to write, are good at managing puzzles altogether, great at understanding pictures, visualizing graphs and charts, like drawing, painting, admire visual arts, and remembering patterns without difficulty. They may be in the field of architects, engineers or actors.

      Also, individuals who are good in ‘Linguistics’ theory of intelligence: they are able to use words finely, either writing or speaking. These people are typically very fine at story writing, good at remembering information and reading, great in remembering written and spoken information, they really enjoy reading and writing, they are good at debate discussions, able to give influential or convincing speeches, able to express things clearly, know how to use humor when telling stories and they it use frequently. Their career may be in writing (journalist), or as a lawyer or a teacher. People, who are an efficient in ‘logical-mathematical intelligence’ can think rationally, can memorize patterns and reasonably evaluate problems. These people like to think or assume theoretically about numbers, relationships and have excellent problem-solving skills. They enjoy thinking about philosophical ideas, directing scientific studies and are strong at finding complicated calculations. Their possible career options may be analyst, mathematician, computer programmer, architect and accountant.

      ‘Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence’, those who have high body kinesthetic intelligence are good at body movements, operating action, and bodily control. Individuals who are able in this area tend to have very good hand-eye coordination and smoothness and tactfulness. The main features include: great at moving to rhythms like dance and sports like soccer or baseball, delight in constructing things with his or her hands, and have an excellent physical organization. They remember things by doing, as compared to hearing or seeing. Their possible future career options may be a dancer, builder or engineer, sculptor, or performer.

      Additionally, the attributes of ‘Musical Intelligence’ are rhythm and beats. People who have powerful musical intelligence are good at patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong understanding of music and are often good at musical composition and performance. The essential quality of musical intelligence is: singing and playing musical instruments, identifying musical patterns and musical tones easily, and efficient in thinking songs and melodies, and good grasping musical compositions, beats and notes. Most likely their career might be a musician, composer, singer or music teacher. Strengths for those individuals who are good in ‘Interpersonal Intelligence’: understanding and interacting with other people. These people are skilled at judging the other person’s emotions, interests, desires and expectations of those around them. They are capable of communicating verbally with others and proficient in nonverbal communication. They can observe the situation from different perspectives; they can build positive relations with others comfortably and are good at settling conflicts in groups. Some good career choices for them could be psychologist, philosopher, counsellor, salesperson or politician.

     ‘Intrapersonal Intelligence’; individuals who are powerful in this type of intelligence, commonly are good at being conscious of their own sentimental elements, feelings, and interests. They have a tendency to enjoy self- reflection and reasoning, including daydreaming, exploring their relationships with others, and observing their particular strengths. The major aspects of this type of intelligence are: good at analyzing his or her positive and negative attitudes, they appreciate evaluating theories and ideas, they have exceptional self- awareness, and they certainly accept the basis of his or her own perceptions, motivations and feelings. Their professional opportunities could be a philosopher, theorist, scientist or writer.

      Lastly, ‘Naturalistic’ is the most recent extension to Gardner’s (1998) theory and has been met with more resistance than his original seven bits of intelligences. They find patterns and connections to nature. According to Gardner, individuals who are great in this type of intelligence are very interested in nature and are generally interested in nurturing, exploring the environment, and studying about other species of nature. These individuals are said to be deeply conscious of even slight changes to their surroundings. They have an interest in courses such as botany, biology, and zoology. They are excellent at classifying and recording data information quickly and they may enjoy gardening, hiking, camping, and exploring the outdoors, but they may not be fond of learning topics that have no relation to nature. The individuals who are strong in naturalistic intelligence might explore their career choices as biologist, conservationist, gardener or farmer.

      Gardner (1983-1993, 1998), added a subtle shade to his intelligence theory. He defined intelligence as the ability to create products or the ability to solve problems in different settings. People have the ability for all eight bits of intelligence and show uneven profiles by blending some intelligence to adjust to the environment (Gardner & Hatch 1989). Theory of Multiple Intelligence has been used in many areas of the educational system including general education classes, classes for students with special needs and special classes for gifted children (Barton 2000; Gardner & Hatch, 1989; Reid & Romanoff, 1997).

      Moreover, Geoff Lindsay (2007) suggests that ‘inclusive education mainstreaming is the key policy objective for an education of children and young people with disabilities’. Teachers could use the theories which are based on individual centered. They can use tools to assess the abilities of children with disabilities. This can create new educational points of view, suggesting that all children, including those with and without disabilities, are smart in some way or the other (Gottfredson, 2004).

       According to Gardner, all individuals have different bits of intelligence. And at some extent, everyone will differ from each other. There are so many different ways to use the multiple intelligence theory in the classroom and beyond. Always keep in mind the capacity of every individual while making a curriculum. Sometimes, many of the teachers thought that individuals with developmental disability are unable to learn new things because of their learning disorder, but this is not always the case. Their learning ability depends upon how the information is delivered to them instead of their biological disability. With the knowledge of multiple intelligence theory, educators have taken an interest in how a student grasps the things more effectively and teachers are able to modify their methods of teaching before assuming the results of an individual with a developmental disability.

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      Gardner’s theories have impacted education for children with developmental disability and it explains how it affects the strength of the students. Identifying the theories that impacted education for children with disabilities can be important to customize the class according to the needs and the way it is more powerful and good for their abilities. With the use of multiple theory of intelligence, special education is raising a child in a special way that he or she will lead to increase their self-esteem. Gardner has given special tools to the teachers to assess their students and find the classes to fit them according to their needs and capabilities. The students’ performance should be measured according to their perception and interaction with others rather than measured by solving the questions. Students see things differently from everyone else and multiple theory of intelligence play an important role in it. This is an inclusive educational environment where no one feels inferior or superior to anyone else. Every individual has his own personal learning styles which may differ due to their disabilities. For example, they may have difficulty with integration or difficulty with memorizing material.

      Also, the community has been playing a crucial role in the usage of multiple theory of intelligence. People in the community have been actively involved in at least the basic understanding of what is being used and what are the pros and cons of the implementations of the theory of Multiple Intelligence. These theories of intelligence are very valuable to human development. The characteristics are their future interests, jobs and their motives. By noticing what these capabilities are, opportunities may open that may have not been known before. Each skill that is discovered by the use of multiple theory of intelligence increases self-esteem, and widens perspective as well as given new chances. This multiple theory of intelligence is acknowledged worldwide and will create a noticeable change in our lives throughout our school placement, jobs and personal learning styles. Each individual is different from each other in their interests, capacities, capabilities etc. when an individual is having a feeling of ownership in their work, their behaviors rather than being told what to do and they are free to choose whatever they want to choose, according to their interests and personality traits.

       The idea of intelligence has been strongly in discussion and in debate since the foundation of IQ tests in the early 1900s. Traditional psychologists have criticized multiple theories of intelligence for a number of reasons. Some critics oppose this theory as it is too broad and ambiguous. According to them, it lacks support from large-scale studies or experimental research (Trends in a Neuroscience and Education Vol. 6, March 2017, page 211-233).  Although criticism that it lacks factual validity, multiple intelligence theory (Gardiner, H. 1983, 1993) Frames of Mind; The Theory of Multiple Intelligence (New York: Basic books). It is contradictory at some points and lowers in motivation. For example, a young child may misbehave or may have disruptive behavior in class or outside the classroom if he or she faces failure in their work assignments. Individuals may feel happy when they are an expert in a particular field such as if we talk about young adults 18 or 19 years old, they may have a feeling to try things or tasks again in case of failure at their workplace, school placements or even their personal life settings. Basically, the purpose of multiple theory of intelligence is to get the individuals attention back into learning. To use a variety of strategies for multiple theory of intelligence, we can measure individual learning. It could be anything written or oral; work done by a student will give an idea to the teacher about how well the student grasps the concept. Students learn how to assemble an engine; they will follow instructions or diagrams with the use of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. By using the information they had; the teacher could be able to assess the student’s understanding of the concept.

        Our classrooms and curriculum system should be designed in a way that will amaze to all of our students and they should be eager to learn the thing in which they are interested. Curriculum should be based on problem solving techniques for all students in a different way. And it will be more enjoyable and sensible for them. We can include all eight bits of intelligence in the curriculum to accommodate all different styles of learning. By using the theory of Multiple Intelligences, we can assume that every student can perform better, which means students are gaining more information. A student’s learning style can also help them to choose an appropriate career according to their choices and interests.

      Even though there are some questions and issues arising about the Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligence, it still has its advantages in the educational system. It helped a significant number of teachers to do their work and to motivate them. Howard’s theory helped teachers to reflect on their practice and provide them a basis to widen their focus and to what may assist individuals to live their lives well, then it has to be judged a helpful addition.

     Overall, individuals may feel happy when they are an expert in a particular field and especially when they choose it according to their needs and desires. Knowing individuals learning intelligence will also be helpful for the teacher and it is important too. The theory of Multiple Intelligence plays a vital role in teaching plans and in learning strategies to achieve ever-changing learning diversities in our schools and on a wider scale in our society.

References:

     During our lifespan, we are faced with many different learning experiences. For instance, every individual has different learning styles or different multiple intelligences. The style of learning is a way by which we can have the advantage of knowledge about our environment. Howard Gardner (1983, 1993) introduced his ‘Theory of Multiple Intelligence’. Multiple Intelligence theory is the management about intelligence which is based on neuroscience practices. Every individual is unique, so not everyone’s brain works or takes action in the same way. I also believe that Howard’s theory will be very useful in the school curriculum for a typical child’s development or for children with the development disability. Within the last few years, Autism Spectrum Disorder, a neurological disorder has increased rapidly. Individuals suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder or any other developmental disabilities may face many difficulties in their personal learning styles and in their school placements. However, the theories of Multiple Intelligence given by Howard (1983) may be helpful for a typical individual or an individual with the developmental disability in their different learning styles. He believed that there are eight different bits of intelligence in humans.

      The theory of Multiple Intelligence has motivated the present investigation. Gardiner redefined intelligence as an ability to solve the problems or create products of value in a culture or community. Gardiner identified 8 distinct forms of intelligence that are influenced by all people but differ in degrees. The eight bits of intelligence are identified as linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. The asset of ‘Visual-Spatial Intelligence’: the individuals who are good in this type of intelligence are good at visualizing things. These people are usually good with locating directions as well as interpreting maps, following charts, analyzing videos and pictures. They like to read and to write, are good at managing puzzles altogether, great at understanding pictures, visualizing graphs and charts, like drawing, painting, admire visual arts, and remembering patterns without difficulty. They may be in the field of architects, engineers or actors.

      Also, individuals who are good in ‘Linguistics’ theory of intelligence: they are able to use words finely, either writing or speaking. These people are typically very fine at story writing, good at remembering information and reading, great in remembering written and spoken information, they really enjoy reading and writing, they are good at debate discussions, able to give influential or convincing speeches, able to express things clearly, know how to use humor when telling stories and they it use frequently. Their career may be in writing (journalist), or as a lawyer or a teacher. People, who are an efficient in ‘logical-mathematical intelligence’ can think rationally, can memorize patterns and reasonably evaluate problems. These people like to think or assume theoretically about numbers, relationships and have excellent problem-solving skills. They enjoy thinking about philosophical ideas, directing scientific studies and are strong at finding complicated calculations. Their possible career options may be analyst, mathematician, computer programmer, architect and accountant.

      ‘Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence’, those who have high body kinesthetic intelligence are good at body movements, operating action, and bodily control. Individuals who are able in this area tend to have very good hand-eye coordination and smoothness and tactfulness. The main features include: great at moving to rhythms like dance and sports like soccer or baseball, delight in constructing things with his or her hands, and have an excellent physical organization. They remember things by doing, as compared to hearing or seeing. Their possible future career options may be a dancer, builder or engineer, sculptor, or performer.

      Additionally, the attributes of ‘Musical Intelligence’ are rhythm and beats. People who have powerful musical intelligence are good at patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong understanding of music and are often good at musical composition and performance. The essential quality of musical intelligence is: singing and playing musical instruments, identifying musical patterns and musical tones easily, and efficient in thinking songs and melodies, and good grasping musical compositions, beats and notes. Most likely their career might be a musician, composer, singer or music teacher. Strengths for those individuals who are good in ‘Interpersonal Intelligence’: understanding and interacting with other people. These people are skilled at judging the other person’s emotions, interests, desires and expectations of those around them. They are capable of communicating verbally with others and proficient in nonverbal communication. They can observe the situation from different perspectives; they can build positive relations with others comfortably and are good at settling conflicts in groups. Some good career choices for them could be psychologist, philosopher, counsellor, salesperson or politician.

     ‘Intrapersonal Intelligence’; individuals who are powerful in this type of intelligence, commonly are good at being conscious of their own sentimental elements, feelings, and interests. They have a tendency to enjoy self- reflection and reasoning, including daydreaming, exploring their relationships with others, and observing their particular strengths. The major aspects of this type of intelligence are: good at analyzing his or her positive and negative attitudes, they appreciate evaluating theories and ideas, they have exceptional self- awareness, and they certainly accept the basis of his or her own perceptions, motivations and feelings. Their professional opportunities could be a philosopher, theorist, scientist or writer.

      Lastly, ‘Naturalistic’ is the most recent extension to Gardner’s (1998) theory and has been met with more resistance than his original seven bits of intelligences. They find patterns and connections to nature. According to Gardner, individuals who are great in this type of intelligence are very interested in nature and are generally interested in nurturing, exploring the environment, and studying about other species of nature. These individuals are said to be deeply conscious of even slight changes to their surroundings. They have an interest in courses such as botany, biology, and zoology. They are excellent at classifying and recording data information quickly and they may enjoy gardening, hiking, camping, and exploring the outdoors, but they may not be fond of learning topics that have no relation to nature. The individuals who are strong in naturalistic intelligence might explore their career choices as biologist, conservationist, gardener or farmer.

      Gardner (1983-1993, 1998), added a subtle shade to his intelligence theory. He defined intelligence as the ability to create products or the ability to solve problems in different settings. People have the ability for all eight bits of intelligence and show uneven profiles by blending some intelligence to adjust to the environment (Gardner & Hatch 1989). Theory of Multiple Intelligence has been used in many areas of the educational system including general education classes, classes for students with special needs and special classes for gifted children (Barton 2000; Gardner & Hatch, 1989; Reid & Romanoff, 1997).

      Moreover, Geoff Lindsay (2007) suggests that ‘inclusive education mainstreaming is the key policy objective for an education of children and young people with disabilities’. Teachers could use the theories which are based on individual centered. They can use tools to assess the abilities of children with disabilities. This can create new educational points of view, suggesting that all children, including those with and without disabilities, are smart in some way or the other (Gottfredson, 2004).

       According to Gardner, all individuals have different bits of intelligence. And at some extent, everyone will differ from each other. There are so many different ways to use the multiple intelligence theory in the classroom and beyond. Always keep in mind the capacity of every individual while making a curriculum. Sometimes, many of the teachers thought that individuals with developmental disability are unable to learn new things because of their learning disorder, but this is not always the case. Their learning ability depends upon how the information is delivered to them instead of their biological disability. With the knowledge of multiple intelligence theory, educators have taken an interest in how a student grasps the things more effectively and teachers are able to modify their methods of teaching before assuming the results of an individual with a developmental disability.

      Gardner’s theories have impacted education for children with developmental disability and it explains how it affects the strength of the students. Identifying the theories that impacted education for children with disabilities can be important to customize the class according to the needs and the way it is more powerful and good for their abilities. With the use of multiple theory of intelligence, special education is raising a child in a special way that he or she will lead to increase their self-esteem. Gardner has given special tools to the teachers to assess their students and find the classes to fit them according to their needs and capabilities. The students’ performance should be measured according to their perception and interaction with others rather than measured by solving the questions. Students see things differently from everyone else and multiple theory of intelligence play an important role in it. This is an inclusive educational environment where no one feels inferior or superior to anyone else. Every individual has his own personal learning styles which may differ due to their disabilities. For example, they may have difficulty with integration or difficulty with memorizing material.

      Also, the community has been playing a crucial role in the usage of multiple theory of intelligence. People in the community have been actively involved in at least the basic understanding of what is being used and what are the pros and cons of the implementations of the theory of Multiple Intelligence. These theories of intelligence are very valuable to human development. The characteristics are their future interests, jobs and their motives. By noticing what these capabilities are, opportunities may open that may have not been known before. Each skill that is discovered by the use of multiple theory of intelligence increases self-esteem, and widens perspective as well as given new chances. This multiple theory of intelligence is acknowledged worldwide and will create a noticeable change in our lives throughout our school placement, jobs and personal learning styles. Each individual is different from each other in their interests, capacities, capabilities etc. when an individual is having a feeling of ownership in their work, their behaviors rather than being told what to do and they are free to choose whatever they want to choose, according to their interests and personality traits.

       The idea of intelligence has been strongly in discussion and in debate since the foundation of IQ tests in the early 1900s. Traditional psychologists have criticized multiple theories of intelligence for a number of reasons. Some critics oppose this theory as it is too broad and ambiguous. According to them, it lacks support from large-scale studies or experimental research (Trends in a Neuroscience and Education Vol. 6, March 2017, page 211-233).  Although criticism that it lacks factual validity, multiple intelligence theory (Gardiner, H. 1983, 1993) Frames of Mind; The Theory of Multiple Intelligence (New York: Basic books). It is contradictory at some points and lowers in motivation. For example, a young child may misbehave or may have disruptive behavior in class or outside the classroom if he or she faces failure in their work assignments. Individuals may feel happy when they are an expert in a particular field such as if we talk about young adults 18 or 19 years old, they may have a feeling to try things or tasks again in case of failure at their workplace, school placements or even their personal life settings. Basically, the purpose of multiple theory of intelligence is to get the individuals attention back into learning. To use a variety of strategies for multiple theory of intelligence, we can measure individual learning. It could be anything written or oral; work done by a student will give an idea to the teacher about how well the student grasps the concept. Students learn how to assemble an engine; they will follow instructions or diagrams with the use of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. By using the information they had; the teacher could be able to assess the student’s understanding of the concept.

        Our classrooms and curriculum system should be designed in a way that will amaze to all of our students and they should be eager to learn the thing in which they are interested. Curriculum should be based on problem solving techniques for all students in a different way. And it will be more enjoyable and sensible for them. We can include all eight bits of intelligence in the curriculum to accommodate all different styles of learning. By using the theory of Multiple Intelligences, we can assume that every student can perform better, which means students are gaining more information. A student’s learning style can also help them to choose an appropriate career according to their choices and interests.

      Even though there are some questions and issues arising about the Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligence, it still has its advantages in the educational system. It helped a significant number of teachers to do their work and to motivate them. Howard’s theory helped teachers to reflect on their practice and provide them a basis to widen their focus and to what may assist individuals to live their lives well, then it has to be judged a helpful addition.

     Overall, individuals may feel happy when they are an expert in a particular field and especially when they choose it according to their needs and desires. Knowing individuals learning intelligence will also be helpful for the teacher and it is important too. The theory of Multiple Intelligence plays a vital role in teaching plans and in learning strategies to achieve ever-changing learning diversities in our schools and on a wider scale in our society.

References:

  • Austin, K.E. ( 2016). Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory in the classroom. Retrieved from https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer
  • Cherry, K. (2018) Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/gardners-theory-of-multiple-intelligences-2795161
  • Dwyer Family Foundation (2016) What you need to know about Howard Gardner’s contribution to special education. Retrieved from deyerfamilyfoundation.com/need-know-howard-gardners-contribution-special-education/
  • Gardner H. (1983) Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences New York: Basic Books.
  • Gardner H. (1999) Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligence for the 21st Century. New York Basic Books.
  • Shearer, C., Branton, Karanian, Jessica M. (2017) The Neuroscience of intelligence: Empirical support for the theory of multiple intelligences? Trends in Neuroscience an seducation, 6, 211-233.  Doi:10.1016/j.tine.2017.02.002 Retrieved from https://sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.humber.ca/science/article/pii/S221194317300030
  • Smith, Mark K. (2002, 2008) ‘Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences’, the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/mobi/howard-gardner-multiple-inteligences-and-education.
  • Takahashi, J. (2013). Multiple Intelligence Theory Can Help Promote Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Developmental Disorders: Historical Reviews of Intelligence Theories, Measurement Methods, and Suggestions for Inclusive Education. Creative Education, 4, 605-610.  doi: 10.4236/ce.2013.49086. Retrieved from http://www.scrip.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PperID=36705
  • Vasal, C. , Pahwa, H., & Kukreja, T. (2017). Identifying Strengths of Children with Special Needs using Multiple Intelligence Theory. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 8(11), 1291-1299 Retrieved from https;//search-proquest-com.ezproxy.humber.ca/docview/1986571602?pq-origsite=summon&accounted=11530

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